We know that interconnection between computers are essential for the proper working of a big organisations. Computers are interconnected inorder to share the informations between them.. Here iam going to simply describe the necessity of computer networks, advantages of networks and methods of interconnecting computers.
How to copy informations in a computer to another?? We can use a CD, pendrive etc.. But is these methods possible for massive transactions of data??
NO…NO. For that, there comes the networking of computers.Exchange of informations between computers is essential in offices,bank, research centers etc.. Connecting computers together so as to exchange informations easily and rapidly is called Networking.
ADVANTAGES OF NETWORKS
A) Resource sharing:
Many of the peripherals used along with a computer are costly.When we connect uses many computers, we have to connect many peripherals. This expense is very large. This problem is solved by networking. Suppose there is only printer with computer A. If we want to print the data from a computer B, which is interconnected with computer A. When we give print command to computer B, it sends the print command along with the data to computer A. Thus we get print through computer A.
We can connect one computer to internet through telephone line and connect other computers through network, share internet services available in the computer having internet connection.
B) Centrally Controlled Informations:
For some computers under network, there is no need to copy a data to all computers. Just copy the data in one computer and it can be accessible from other computers in the network. But some of the data may be of confidential in nature.It cannot be allowed to others to access that data.Some control methods have to be adopted. There should be a facility to decide what information is accessible by whom and what kinds of access rights can be provided. A person is made responsible to arrange and control the computers in a network in this manner.
C) Security of Information:
The informations stored in computers may be lost due to machine failure, virus infections etc… Imagine that a situation of losing datas of a bank!!!!!! This
kind of important informations can be copied to other computers through network. If the informations stored in a computer is lost, the copy stored in other computers will be safe.The network is utilized by defence institutions, bank,software development companies, research institutions etc in this manner.
D) Media For Communication:
There are different ways to utilize network as communication media. WWW, E-mail,video conferencing etc are some of the examples. As a media, main advantage of networking is that we can share audio, video, pictures etc
TYPES OF NETWORKS
Let’s look what are the different types of network, how they can be implemented etc
If the distance between two computers is short, the network is called LAN (Local Area Network) The network within a room, a building or an organisation come under the category of LAN.
The network constituted by connecting computers at distant areas is called WAN ( Wide Area Network). The computers at thousands of kilometer away from each other can be member of WAN. They use satellites or optical fibre for information exchange…
HOW COMPUTERS ARE CONNECTED?????
We know that informations are transferred between computers in the form of bits. There are many media used to transmit such bits.. The following are some of the transmission media..
A) Coaxial Cables
Computer networks can be materialized using coaxial cables.The informations are transmitted in the form of electric signals through this cable.
B) U.T.P Cables
Un-shielded Twisted Pair Cable is a set of twisted paired wires. They are largely used to design small networks. They also transmit informations in the form of electric pulses….
C) Fibre Optic Cables
Informations are transmitted in the form of light rays in the fibre optic cables. These cables can transform large amount of data at a high speed. They are used for constructing large networks.
D) Infrared Rays
Infrared rays are electromagnetic rays with frequency larger than red light.If the distance between the computers is very short, it can be used. But there should not be any obstruction between computers. The advantage of this is there is no need of cables.This medium is not using today.
E) Radio Waves
When radio waves are used as the medium, obstructions are less affected to data transfer than infrared.. In addition radio waves are better for networking computer situated far apart.
NETWORK INTERFACE CARDS
If a computer is to be attached to the network, a special circuit board is to be fixed in to the computer. It is the circuit board helps our computer to communicate with other computers through the network media.. This is called network interface card.The cable used for networking are connected in to this card.
All computers in a network need not be same type. Hence the computers in the network should follow certain rules and regulations for proper exchange of informations.. These rules are called network protocols. Today widely used protocol is TCP/IP.
Each computer in a network has its own address. If the computer belongs to TCO/IP, the address is called IP address. Computers are identified using these addresses for sending and receiving informations.
Here I just mentioned about basic concepts of computer networking..
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